I have to admit that I don’t know much about Halloween. It has become very popular in Germany lately, mostly because companies and shops have been pushing it. When I grew up I only knew Halloween from US-American pop culture and I don’t think it would ever have occurred to us to celebrate it in any way. We didn’t celebrate All Hallows’ Evening, we kind of celebrated All Hallows’ Day or All Saints’ Day, which, of course, is the day after Halloween. “Kind of celebrated” means that we might have had a day off from school so we’d get the chance to go to Catholic mass. And a day later, on Reformation Day, all my Protestant friends would get a day off from school. Kind of funny that we’d remember the saints one day before the Protestants celebrate that there are no saints. Or something like that.

Saxony is the area where the Protestant Reformation started and the 31. of October is a civic holiday here. And while many bakeries sell bright Halloween treats, you will also find a local bake right next to them. It’s a yeasted roll made from a very light stollen dough, which is decorated with jam and powdered sugar. It is called Reformationsbrötchen (Reformation Roll). It’s shape is supposed to look like a Luther Rose, although a very sloppy version. I have to admit that I do not know much about this baked good, I looked up both its history and a recipe online and adapted it. Instead of zitronat (German for candied citrus peel) I used dried and ground clementine peel. And instead of regular all-purpose flour I used gelbweizenmehl (yellow wheat flour). Yellow wheat flour is something I discovered recently. According to the mill’s website this flour is an old wheat variety which has a lot of carotenoids. They give the flour a light yellow tint. It makes for very beautiful plain rolls:

rolls made with yellow wheat flour (gelbweizen)

I couldn’t find much information about this kind of wheat online, but from my experience I can say that although this flour makes beautifully golden baked goods, you have to get used to working with it. A dough made with yellow wheat flour will need much less water than a dough made with regular all-purpose flour. That is especially the case for unenriched yeast doughs, it seems. For the following Reformationsbroetchen I didn’t have to make a change at all. Which means that you should just go ahead and make them with regular white flour.

To make dried ground clementine peel  – you can use lemons or oranges as well, but clementine peels dry much faster –  simply peel a couple of clementines and let the peels dry. This works faster if you place them on your central heating or dry them in the oven at a very low temperature. Then all you’ve got to do is pulverise the peel in a coffee grinder. (Or just use a teaspoon or two of freshly grated peel.)



Wow, I just realised that this post is all over the place! You probably wanna know how the rolls are, right? They are fabulous! Lots of juicy raisins, a couple of chopped almonds, and the clementine peel make them indeed taste like a very light stollen. Plus they have fig jam in the centre and lots of powdered sugar.



500 g yellow wheat flour (or regular all-purpose), divided
20 g fresh yeast, divided
150 ml water
150 ml soy milk
100 g raisins
50 g sugar
50 g chopped blanched almonds
50 g margarine, softened
1/4 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon dried clementine peel (or fresh, or lemon zest)
water for brushing
6 teaspoons red jam of choice
powdered sugar for dusting


To make the dough, place half of the flour in a large bowl.

Crumble 5 grams of fresh yeast over the flour and add the water.

Let sit for 5 minutes.

Knead everything into a stiff dough and let rise at room temperature for 5 hours. (Or over night in the fridge. If you use the fridge, let the dough come back to room temp before proceeding.)

Once your dough is ready, combine soy milk and raisins in a small saucepan. Bring to a boil and remove from heat immediately.

Let cool to room temperature, then stir in remaining yeast and sugar.

Stir until yeast is dissolved.

Add the soy milk mixture, the remaining flour, chopped almonds, margarine, salt, and dried clementine peel to the prepared dough and knead until all ingredients are incorporated and the dough is smooth.

Place in a bowl, cover, and let rest for 45 minutes.

On a floured surface, roll the dough into a rectangle, about 36 x 48 cm.

Cut the dough into 12 12x12 cm sized squares.

Brush the corners of each square with a bit of water, then fold each corner into the centre and press down gently. Transfer the squares to two baking sheets lined with parchment paper.

Cover with clean kitchen towels and let rest for 30 minutes.

Meanwhile preheat the oven to 200°C.

Place 1/2 teaspoon of jam in the centre of each roll.

Place 1 baking sheet in the hot oven and bake for 15 minutes, or until golden brown.

Repeat with the other sheet. Let the rolls cool completely before dusting with powdered sugar. Serve on the same day.




Welcome back to the quest for the ultimate vegan croissant. (Find part one with tips and tricks here. Please read if you want to make this recipe.) Writing these two posts down and taking all these pictures took almos as long as making the actual croissants. But once in a while I really love to splurge on these things. Because after all baking and blogging are my favourite things to do. I am super lucky that I can afford to spend an afternoon here and there working on my blog projects and I really hope thse instructions are useful for one or two of you.

But let’s get right into it and start baking! For both versions (margarine and coconut oil) we will start with a basic dough that you have to prepare the night before you want to bake your croissants. A long rest and slow rise in the fridge will help the dough develop flavour.

vegan croissants with margarine or coconut oil

Although you can use all-purpose flour with no problem, I’ve found that white spelt flour (German type 630) works better with the coconut oil version. It is a bit stretchier than all purpose flour. That means the croissant dough is easier  to roll out. But as I said, all-purpose flour will be fine, if you don’t have white spelt on hand.

Also, as always I encourage you to experiment! My recipe is only a suggestion and maybe you will get better results with the coconut oil version, if you leave out the flour for the filling or choose a sturdier flour (like all-purpose or bread flour). You never know. I am not a trained chef and am figuring out these things out as I go. If you experiment with this recipe (or have experimented with croissants), please let me know and leave a comment.

vegan croissants with margarine or coconut oil

Croissants are some of the foods many of us take for granted. They seem like a lot of work, so we just buy them at the bakery. Yeah. That is unless when you are vegan. No croissants for those butter despisers, right. Because croissants need butter.

Actually they don’t. I used to make them with margarine all the time. And look how they turn out! If you use the right kind of margarine (In Germany that is Alsan) you won’t even miss the butter.These days I don’t use margarine any longer. I bought a package to make croissants again and I still think commercial margarine will give you better results than any other fat.* It has the right mixture of fats that will melt at different temperatures. And it has water, which is so important for the croissant layers to form. (The water will evaporate during baking and leave little air pockets.) Coconut oil just won’t do that which makes the croissant layers merge into each other.

These bagels were created because I was lacking an important ingredient: whole wheat flour. There was only a tiny bit left but I had lots of other flours and flakes. So I threw in a lot of different things to make up for it. These came out as perfect bagels. Make them if you’ve got some flours to use up and don’t hesitate to substitute some of the ingredients with what you like.

Multi-Grain Bagels (makes 14 small)

4 tablespoons toasted pumpkin seeds, measured and then ground in a food processor or chopped
120 g barley flakes (= rolled barley) (3/4) cup, ground into a course meal
150g whole wheat flour (1 1/8 cup)
3 TB gluten flour
120g whole rye flour (1 cup)
135 g wheat flour (all purpose) (1 cup + 1 tablespoon)
1 pkg. active dry yeast (7g)
2 teaspoons salt
1 tablespoon sugar beet syrup (or corn, maple, agave)
420 ml water (1 3/4 cup)

In a bowl, mix together all the ingredients and knead until your dough gets soft and elastic (maybe you need to add a little bit more flour or water). Knead for ten minutes by hand or with the help of a bread machine, hand held mixer, food processor… Put the dough back into the bowl, cover, and let rise in a warm place until doubled (1-1/2 hours). Bring a large pot with water to a gentle boil, add some salt. Preheat oven to 200°C/400°F, line a baking sheet with parchment paper. Lightly flour your working surface. Knead the dough for another minute and divide it into 14 balls. Shape the bagels by poking your thumb through the centre. Stretch the dough into a ring and place it on a floured surface. Cover and let rise for another 20 minutes. Cook the bagels in hot water for one minute then turn them around and cook for another minute. Depending on the size of your pot, cook only one or two bagels at a time. Bake them for 20 minutes or until golden brown. Let cool completely and serve or freeze them.